Health Risks Associated with
Hypertension is a risk factor for two of
the three leading causes of death in the
States, Heart Disease and Stroke.
- Risk factors for hypertension are also risk factors for
cardiovascular disease and stroke, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and CHD mortality
(ref CHD and stroke deaths chart CDC, also prevalence of risk factors for
heart disease and stroke chart)
- Leading causes of death 1997: heart disease 31.4%, stroke
6.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4.7%, diabetes 2.7% kidney
- 1st, 2nd, 3rd leading
causes of death in age group >65 is heart disease, cancer, stroke. (ref
chart for the prevalence of contributors hypertension, coronary heart
disease, stroke, rheumatic heart disease also leading cause of death table
by sex, age, race)
- Third leading cause of death in 25 44 age group is heart
disease. Second leading cause of death in age group 45 to 64 is heart
- Hypertension is the most common precursor to cardiovascular
disease and stroke.
- The relationship between hypertension and cardiovascular
disease is strong, continuous, graded, consistent, independent, predictive,
and etiologically significant for those with and without coronary heart
- There is no convincing evidence for a J curve or threshold
value below which the risk for cardiovascular and renal disease does not
The observed association of risk is stronger for systolic
blood pressure than the corresponding diastolic blood pressure.
- In one recent report, low risk individuals (non-smokers,
serum cholesterol <200mg/dL [5.18mmol/L, blood pressure
120/80 mmHg) have 72 85% lower cardiovascular disease mortality and 40
59% lower all cause mortality when compared to persons with at least one of
the three mentioned risk factors.
- End Stage Renal disease
- For individuals 40 70 years of age, each increment of 20
mm Hg in systolic BP (SBP) or 10 mm Hg in diastolic BP (DBP) doubles the
risk of CVD across the entire BP range from 115/75 to 185/115 mm Hg.
One half of the decline seen in death rates from
stroke in white women and 2/3 of the decline seen in African American women
can be attributed to a decline in blood pressure
- Dramatic improvements have slowed in recent years and the age adjusted stroke
rates have risen slightly and the slope of the age adjusted rate of decline in CHD appears to be leveling
Rates for end stage renal disease have increased, high
blood pressure is the most common antecedent to ESRD
- Prevalence of heart failure has also increased, for which hypertension is the
most common precursor.
- Hypertension control rates have not continued to improve.
- If trends in the awareness, treatment and control established between 1976
1980 and 1988 1991, continued, in 1994 the awareness would have been
76.2%, treatment 59.6%, control 31.2%.